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Hare's works have tended to be somewhat sensationalized and have co-mingled academic and lay (newspaper type) accounts. doi: 10.1007/s11920-005-0026-3 Psychopathy traditionally is defined by a cluster of inferred personality traits and socially deviant behaviors. The Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 217-246. Factor 2 is strongly correlated with these latter variables and with scales related to socialization.
Despite much research on neurophysiological correlates of psychopathy, no clear consensus has developed yet concerning a neuropsychological theory of psychopathy. The accepted standard for the reliable and valid assessment of psychopathy is the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091452 In this review, we focus on two major influences on current conceptualizations of psychopathy: one clinical, with its origins largely in the early case studies of Cleckley, and the other empirical, the result of widespread use of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for assessment purposes. We conclude that both factors measure important elements of psychopathy and that assessments based only on the presence of antisocial behavior or on scales related to socialization are inadequate.
Some psychopaths can control their self-serving behaviors so they remain (perhaps just barely) within the bounds of legal behavior, not because to do otherwise would be "wrong," but because being caught would unduly interfere with their efforts to get what they want.
In some circumstances, psychopathic traits may actually help an individual become a well-regarded (although not necessarily well-liked) member of society. This is a detailed overview of the development and structural properties of the PCL-R and its derivatives.
Many points of controversy are left unanswered and many key issues remain to be addressed. Because of its importance in basic and applied research, and in the mental health and criminal justice systems, the PCL-R has been subjected to intense scrutiny by researchers and clinicians. Some investigators assert that the PCL-R, ostensibly based on Cleckley's work, has "drifted" from the construct described in his Clinical Profile.
— Types of psychopaths commonly identified: Psychopathy is a psychological condition in which the individual shows a profound lack of empathy for the feelings of others, a willingness to engage in immoral and antisocial behavior for short-term gains, and extreme egocentricity. In this article we discuss issues surrounding its structural properties and those of its derivatives. We evaluate this profile, note its basis in an unrepresentative sample of patients, and suggest that its literal and uncritical acceptance by the research community has become problematical. We now have an impressive body of replicable and meaningful empirical findings, due in large part to the widespread adoption of the PCL-R and its derivatives as a common working model of psychopathy.
Psychopaths are at increased risk of engaging in both reactive and instrumental aggression.
Psychopaths do not have the fear response experienced by most of us to the potential negative consequences of criminal or risky behavior and are relatively insensitive to punishment. Using factor analysis, item response theory, and multidimensional scaling, we propose that the PCL-R and its derivatives are underpinned by at least four correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. Given that the modeling results to date indicate a moderate to strong covariation of four dimensions of psychopathy (Interpersonal, Affective, Behavioral, and Antisocial), it would be prudent to assume that the longitudinal relations among these dimensions are interactive and reciprocal, and that the "real" core of psychopathy has yet to be uncovered. We also argue that the idea of construct "drift" is irrelevant to current conceptualizations of psychopathy, which are better informed by the extensive empirical research on the integration of structural, genetic, developmental, personality, and neurobiological research findings than by rigid adherence to early clinical formulations.
They tend not to be deterred from their self-serving behaviors by criminal or social penalties. We argue that attempts to characterize antisocial behaviors as merely "downstream" manifestations of more central traits are inconsistent with the structural properties of the PCL-R and with evidence that the development of traits and actions are interactive and reciprocal. We offer some suggestions for future research on psychopathy.
The two types of aggression, instrumental and reactive, are not mutually exclusive. The mob hit man may commit murder as part of his job but, like others, can experience road rage after a bad day at work.
The point is that the reliance on instrumental aggression to get what they want is one of me unsettling things that distinguishes some psychopaths from the general population.